Executive Summary: Thailand’s public education system is consistently near the bottom of global education rankings. Critics blame outdated practices, little political will to pursue significant reforms, and inconsistent policy implementation. International observers regularly identify teacher education and training as areas for significant improvement. This analysis considers two policy alternatives. The first addresses how Thailand’s future teachers could be educated, and the second considers how professional teachers could be mentored. This analysis recommends Thailand first establish a strong and effective recruitment system for teachers. Measures include enhancing teacher education programs in universities and eliminating tuition for students who commit to teach in Thailand’s rural and underserved areas.